Considered in Connexion
Applications of Science:
with Numerous Engravings.
by Jacob Bigelow, M.D
Professor of Materia Medica in Harvard University, Author of
'The Elements of Technology,' etc. etc.
in Two Volumes.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1840, by
MARSH, CAPEN, LYON, AND WEBB,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.
Skip to Contents
Skip to Index
The following volumes are furnished for publication,
at the request of the Publishers of the School Library,
now issuing under the sanction of the Massachusetts
Board of Education. Most of their subjects were formerly
comprised in a course of lectures, delivered in Harvard
University, and afterwards published, in two editions
of the author's 'Elements of Technology.' The Work is
now prepared for the press, with various modifications and
additions, intended, chiefly, to bring the account of its subjects
down to the present time. An historical chapter is
also prefixed to the Work, and several new subjects introduced
in its pages.
The degree of interest, which was formerly taken in the
Lectures alluded to, led the author to believe, that the
subject is, in itself, peculiarly capable of exciting the attention
and curiosity of students. There can be no doubt,
that the knowledge, which this study is intended to furnish,
is of great use in the common affairs of life; and,
probably, its advancement has contributed, more than that
of any other science, to the improved condition of the
A certain degree of acquaintance with the theory and
scientific principles of the common arts is found so generally
important, that most educated men, in the course
of an ordinary practical life, are obliged to obtain it from
some source, or to suffer inconvenience, for the want of
it. He who builds a house, or buys an estate, if he
would avoid disappointment and loss, must know something
of the arts, which render them appropriate and tenantable.
He who travels abroad, to instruct himself, or
enlighten his countrymen, finds, in the works of art, the
most commanding objects of his attention and interest.
He who remains at home, and limits his ambition to the
more humble object of keeping his apartment warm, and
himself comfortable, can only succeed, through the instrumentality
of the arts.
There has, probably, never been an age, in which the
practical applications of science have employed so large a
portion of the talent and enterprise of the community, as
in the present; nor one, in which their cultivation has
yielded such abundant rewards. And it is not the least
of the distinctions of our own country, to have contributed
to the advancement of this branch of improvement, by
many splendid instances of inventive genius, and successful
The importance of the subject, and the prevailing interest
which exists, in regard to the arts and their practical
influences, appear, commonly, to have created a want, not
provided for, in our courses of elementary education. Information
on these subjects is scattered through the larger
works on mechanics, on chemistry, mineralogy, engineering,
architecture, domestic economy, the fine arts, &c.;
so that it rarely happens, that a student, in any of our colleges,
gathers information enough to understand the common
technical terms, which he meets with, in a modern
book of travels, or periodical work. It is only by making
the elements of the arts themselves, subjects of direct
attention, that this deficiency is likely to be supplied.
In the present volumes, it is attempted to include such
an account, as the limits may permit, of the principles,
processes, and nomenclatures, of the more conspicuous
arts; particularly those, which involve applications of science,
and which may be considered useful, by promoting
the benefit of society, together with the emolument of
those who pursue them.
In preparing for the press the lectures, on which this
Work was founded, some variations from the original form
were made, together with such additions, as leisure from
professional engagements permitted. In doing this, occasional
use was made of the works of Robison, Young,
Tredgold, and several of the late chemical writers. But,
as these elementary volumes are composed for the instruction
of the uninitiated, rather than for the perfection
of adepts, it has been found necessary to condense, and
to endeavor to render intelligible, the subjects of consideration,
rather than to dilate them, by minute expositions
and details. For the use of those students, who may
wish to extend their inquiries, in reference to any of the
particular subjects, a list of some of the more prominent
authors, and works of value, that treat upon the several
subjects, is subjoined, at the end of each chapter.
Among some of these works, the authorities for the
facts stated in the preceding chapter, will, in most instances,
An Appendix is added to the second volume, consisting
of miscellaneous accounts, relating to certain subjects
of interest. In each volume, a Glossary, for the use of
students, and copious Indexes, complete the Work.
HISTORICAL OUTLINE OF THE PROGRESS OF THE ARTS IN ANCIENT
AND MODERN TIMES.
Arts of the Egyptians:--Architecture; Pyramids;
Sphinx; Labyrinth; Obelisks; Cities; Tombs;
Sculpture; Houses; Mills; Transporting of
Weights; Glass; Linen; Cotton; Woollen;
Writing Materials; Leather; Trades; Furniture;
Boats; Dress; Metals and Minerals; Gold Mines.
Arts of the Assyrians. Arts of the Hindoos. Arts
of the Persians. Arts of the Hebrews. Arts of
the Grecians:--Architecture; Sculpture; Painting.
Arts of the Romans:--Nero's House; Amphitheatre;
Temples; Arches; Columns; Aqueducts;
Roads; Bridges; Houses; Riding; Statuary;
Painting; Implements; Domestic Arts;
Herculaneum; Pompeii. Arts of the Chinese.
Arts of the Arabians. Arts of the Middle Ages:--Gunpowder;
Mariner's Compass; Clocks; Optical
Instruments. Arts of Modern Times:--Printing;
Chimneys; Glass Windows; Carriages;
Pavements; Oil Painting; Engraving; Optical
Instruments; Watches; Paper; Cotton Spinning;
Prints; Hat-making; Metals; Aerostation; Diving
Bell; Steam-engine. Arts of the Nineteenth
Century:--Steam-boats; Rail-roads; Gas Lights;
Argand Lamps; Stereotyping; Machine Printing;
Lithography; Steel Engraving; Mc Adam Roads;
Wooden Pavements; India rubber; Labor-saving
OF THE MATERIALS USED IN THE ARTS
Materials from the Mineral Kingdom:--Stones and
Earths: Marble; Granite; Seinite; Freestone;
Slate; Mica; Mica Slate; Soapstone; Serpentine;
Gypsum; Alabaster; Chalk; Fluor Spar; Flint;
Porphyry; Buhrstone; Novaculite; Precious
Stones; Emery; Sand; Pumice; Tufa; Peperino;
Tripoli; Clay; Asbestos;--Cements: Limestone;
Puzzolana; Tarras; Other Cements; Maltha;--Metals:
Iron; Copper; Lead; Tin; Mercury;
Gold; Silver; Platinum; Palladium; Zinc; Nickel;
Antimony; Cobalt; Bismuth; Arsenic; Manganese;--Combustibles,
&c: Bitumen; Amber; Coal;
Anthracite; Graphite; Peat; Sulphur. Materials
from the Vegetable Kingdom:--Wood; Bark;
Oak; Hickory; Ash; Elm; Locust; Wild Cherry;
Chestnut; Beech; Basswood; Tulip Tree;
Maple; Birch; Buttonwood; Persimmon; Black
Walnut; Tupelo; Pine; Spruce; Hemlock;
White Cedar; Cypress; Larch; Arbor Vitae;
Red Cedar; Willow; Mahogany; Teak Wood;
Lance Wood; Boxwood; Lignum Vitae; Cork;
Hemp; Flax; Aloes; Pine Apple; Manilla Hemp;
New Zealand Flax; Cotton; Straw; Palm Leaves;
Turpentine; Caoutchouc; Oils; Resins; Starch;
Gum. Materials from the Animal Kingdom:--Skins;
Hair and Fur; Quills and Feathers;
Wool; Silk; Bone and Ivory; Shell; Horn;
Tortoise Shell; Whalebone; Glue; Oil; Wax;
OF THE FORM AND STRENGTH OF MATERIALS.
Modes of Estimation; Stress and Strain; Resistance;
Extension; Compression; Lateral Strain;
Stiffness; Tubes; Strength; Place of Strain;
Incipient Fracture; Shape of Timber; Torsion;
Limit of Bulk; Practical Remarks, 120
OF THE PRESERVATION OF MATERIALS.
Stones; Metals; Organic Substances; Temperature;
Dryness; Wetness; Antiseptics. Timber:--Felling;
Seasoning. Preservation of Timber.
Preservation of Animal Textures:--Embalming;
Tanning; Parchment; Catgut; Gold-beater's
Skin. Specimens in Natural History:--Appert's
OF DIVIDING AND UNITING MATERIALS.
Modes of Division:--Fracture; Cutting; Cutting
Machines; Planing Machines; Penetration; Boring
and Drilling; Mortising; Turning; Attrition;
Sawing; Saw Mill; Circular Saw; Crushing;
Stamping Mill; Bark Mill; Oil Mill; Sugar Mill;
Cider Mill; Grinding; Grist Mill; Color Mill;
Modes of Union:--Insertion; Interposition;
Binding; Locking; Cementing; Glueing; Welding;
Soldering; Casting; Fluxes; Moulds, 148
OF CHANGING THE COLOR OF MATERIALS.
Of applying Superficial Color:--Painting; Colors;
Preparation; Application; Crayons; Water Colors;
Distemper; Paper Hangings; Flock Paper;
Fresco; Encaustic Painting; Oil Painting; Varnishing;
Japanning; Polishing; Lackering; Gilding;
Photography. Of Changing Intrinsic Color:--Bleaching;
Dyeing; Mordants; Dyes; Calico
THE ARTS OF WRITING AND PRINTING.
Letters; Invention of Letters; Arrangement of Letters;
Writing Materials; Papyrus; Herculaneum
Manuscripts; Parchment; Paper; Instruments;
Ink; Copying Machines; Printing Types; Cases;
Sizes; Composing; Imposing; Signatures; Correcting
the Press; Press Work; Printing Press;
Stereotyping; Machine Printing. History, 193
ARTS OF DESIGNING AND PAINTING.
Divisions. Perspective:--Field of Vision; Distance
and Foreshortening; Definitions: Instrumental
Perspective; Mechanical Perspective; Perspectographs;
Projections; Isometrical Perspective.
Chiaro Oscuro:--Light and Shade; Association;
Direction of Light; Reflected Light; Expression
of Shape; Eyes of a Portrait; Shadows; Aerial
Perspective. Coloring:--Colors; Shades; Tone;
Harmony; Contrast. Remarks, 211
ARTS OF ENGRAVING AND LITHOGRAPHY.
Engraving:--Origin; Materials; Instruments;
Styles; Line Engraving; Medal Ruling; Stippling;
Etching; Mezzotinto; Aqua Tinta; Medallic
Engraving; Copperplate Printing; Colored
Engravings; Steel Engraving; Wood Engraving.
Lithography:--Principles; Origin; Lithographic
Stones; Preparation; Lithographic Ink and
Chalk; Mode of Drawing; Etching the Stone;
Printing; Printing Ink. Remarks, 228
OF SCULPTURE, MODELLING, AND CASTING.
Subjects; Modelling; Casting in Plaster; Bronze
Casting; Practice of Sculpture; Materials; Objects
of Sculpture; Gem Engraving; Cameos;
Intaglios; Mosaic; Scagliola, 244
OF ARCHITECTURE AND BUILDING.
Architecture:--Elements; Foundations; Column;
Wall; Lintel; Arch; Abutments; Arcade; Vault;
Dome; Plate II.; Roof; Styles of Building; Definitions;
Measures; Drawings; Restorations.
Egyptian Style. The Chinese Style. The Grecian
Style:--Orders of Architecture: Doric Order;
Ionic Order; Corinthian Order; Caryatides;
Grecian Temple; Grecian Theatre; Remarks.
Roman Style:--Tuscan Order; Roman Doric;
Roman Ionic; Composite Order; Roman Structures;
Remarks. Greco-Gothic Style. Saracenic
Style. Gothic Style:--Definitions; Application, 252
ARTS OF HEATING AND VENTILATION.
Production of Heat:--Fuel; Weight of Fuel; Combustible
Matter of Fuel; Water in Fuel; Charcoal.
Communication of Heat:--Radiated and
Conducted Heat; Fire in the Open Air; Fire
Places; Admission of Cold Air; Open Fires;
Franklin Stove; Rumford Fire Place; Double
Fire Place; Coal Grate; Anthracite Grate;
Burns's Grate; Building a Fire; Furnaces;
Stoves; Russian Stove; Cockle; Thermometer
Stove; Carrying Heat; Heating by Air-Flues;
Heating by Water; Heating by Steam. Retention
of Heat:--Causes of Loss; Crevices; Chimneys;
Entries and Sky Lights; Windows. Ventilation:--Objects;
Modes; Ventilators; Culverts; Smoky
Rooms; Damp Chimneys; Large Fire Places;
Close Rooms; Contiguous Doors; Short Chimneys;
Opposite Fire Places; Neighboring Eminences;
Turncap, &c.; Contiguous Flues; Burning
of Smoke. General Remarks, 303
ARTS OF ILLUMINATION.
Flame:--Support of Flame; Torches and Candles;
Lamps; Reservoirs; Astral Lamp; Hydrostatic
Lamps; Automaton Lamp; Mechanical Lamps;
Pressure Lamp; Fountain Lamp; Argand Lamp;
Submarine Lamp; Hydro-oxygen Lamp; Spirit
Lamp; Reflectors; Hanging of Pictures; Transparency
of Flame; Glass Shades; Sinumbral
Lamp; Measurement of Light; Light Houses;
Gas Lights; Coal Gas; Gasometer; Oil Gas;
Gasmeter; Portable Gas Lights; Safety Lamp;
Lamp without Flame; Modes of procuring Light 331